Introduction: Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been
shown to attenuate renal injury and dysfunction in several animal models, and its efficacy is currently
being tested in clinical trials for patients with renal disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that
MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that deliver genes, microRNAs and proteins to recipient
cells, acting as mediators of MSC paracrine actions. In this context, it is critical to characterize the
MSC-derived EV cargo to elucidate their potential contribution to renal repair. In recent years, researchers
have performed high-throughput sequencing and proteomic analysis to detect and identify
genes, microRNAs, and proteins enriched in MSC-derived EVs.
Conclusion: The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the MSC-derived EV secretome
to shed light into the mechanisms mediating MSC renal repair, and discusses preclinical and
clinical studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs for treating renal disease.