Background: Coupling reactions, commonly can be achieved via a wide range of organometallic
reagents and electrophiles, representing an important class of synthetic transformation, namely “cross-coupling
reaction. It is frequently catalyzed by various palladium (Pd) as species. The synthesis and characterization of
an N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) was accomplished in 1991. In 1991, the first synthesis of a stable NHC was
achieved and reported.
Objective: This development literally invigorated the interest and attention for this novel species being examined
as a ligand for the synthesis of Pd Complexes.
Conclusion: In this review, we tried to give a full account on the development of NHC–Pd chemistry intended
being used as catalyst under non-conventional conditions. In this light, those carbon-carbon bond formations
being successfully achieved in aqueous systems, using immobilized NHC-Pd complexes under nonconventional
strategies, such as being conducted under microwave irradiations (MWI) are supported and solvent-
free conditions are discussed.
Keywords: Cross-Coupling Reactions, N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC), green chemistry, microwave irradiation, aqueous media, Pdcatalyzed
reaction, suzuki reaction, heck reaction.
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