IgA/IgM Responses to Gram-Negative Bacteria are not Associated with Perinatal Depression, but with Physio-somatic Symptoms and Activation of the Tryptophan Catabolite Pathway at the End of Term and Postnatal Anxiety

Author(s): Chutima Roomruangwong*, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, George Anderson, Andre F. Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes*.

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Volume 16 , Issue 4 , 2017

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Abstract:

Background: Evidence has implicated the translocation of commensal Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-B) due to leaky gut in the pathophysiology of depression and physio-somatic symptoms (e.g. fatigue, pain, irritable bowel syndrome, malaise, etc.). In addition, the leaky gut may contribute to immune- inflammatory activation and oxidative stress. This study investigated whether bacterial translocation is associated with perinatal depression and anxiety scores and with prenatal physio-somatic symptoms and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, including the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway.

Method: Data were collected in pregnant women at the end of term (T1) and 4-6 weeks after delivery (T2) as well as in non-pregnant controls. We examined the associations between serum IgM/IgA responses to Gram-B at the end of term and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale -EPDS) and anxiety (Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory -STAI) symptoms.

Results: Levels of C-reactive protein, zinc, haptoglobin, hematocrit and IgA/IgM responses to 9 TRYCATs were also measured. No significant associations of the IgA/IgM responses to Gram-B with prenatal depression and anxiety were observed. Increased IgA/IgM responses to Gram-B predict higher levels of haptoglobin, hematocrit and TRYCATs, in particular quinolinic acid and the quinolinic acid / kynurenic acid ratio. IgA responses to Gram-B were significantly lowered in pregnant women compared to age-matched non-pregnant women, while IgM responses were significantly elevated in participants with alcohol consumption. Physio-somatic symptoms at the end of term were significantly associated with IgM responses to Klebsiella pneumonia. Postnatal anxiety was significantly predicted by IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pregnancy may protect against bacterial translocation, while alcohol use may increase bacterial translocation. The results suggest that end of term mucosa-derived immune responses to Gram-B contribute to immune activation, physio-somatic symptoms at the end of term and postnatal anxiety.

Highlights: • Immune responses to Gram - Bacteria associate with physio-somatic symptoms in pregnancy. • IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa predict anxiety symptoms after delivery. • Pregnancy may have a protective effect against bacterial translocation. • Alcohol use increases leaky gut and bacterial translocation.

Keywords: Depression, inflammation, leaky gut, oxidative stress, pregnancy, tryptophan catabolites.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2017
Page: [472 - 483]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1871527316666170407145533
Price: $58

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