Background: Enzymes efficiently catalyze various specific biochemical and biological reactions.
Researchers seem to be playing around these biomolecules to get answers to some imperative
questions like molecular evolution, crucial residues in binding with substrate, cofactor specificity etc.
Molecular evolution of enzymes enables researchers to deduce the evolutionary history of different organisms
via comparison of protein sequences. Neutral theory of molecular evolution predicted that silent
sites in protein coding regions evolve faster than replacement sites (due to different functional constraints)
and the amount of sequence divergence correlates with the level of heterozygosity.
Objective: Artificially redesign active site of enzymes that can alter its properties like efficiency, thermal
stability and specificity using different directed molecular evolution techniques.
Conclusion: In this article, we have tried to bring all innovative works together which would be beneficial
in the field of enzyme engineering, industry as well as therapeutics.