Background: To succeed in biomedical implant surgery, materials must be biocompatible.
Willemite nanoparticles can be used in biomedical applications. MTT assay shows that willemite
nanoparticles have non-toxic interaction between Hela (Cervical cancer) cell lines and the willemite
found to be biocompatible for further applications in-vivo systems. In depth cell particle interaction
was carried out, by using staining technique coupled with inverted microscopy. The antibacterial test
was performed against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 8739) and Gram-positive
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC 6538). The optimal properties with excellent antibacterial
ability can be achieved when willemite nanoparticles concentration is between 0.30 ppm and 2.3
ppm. According to the obtained results, the synthesized nano composite powder confirms biocompatibility
of willemite, which could be an attractive candidate for biomedical applications.
Methods: Pure willemite nanoparticles were synthesized via the modified sol-gel method. Synthesized
powder was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) with SAED techniques. The in vitro biocompatibility of willemite was studied.
The biocompatibility of the willemite nanoparticles was studied using Hela (Cervical cancer) cell
lines with MTT assays up to 24 h.
Results: Willemite nanoparticles were synthesized by facile sol-gel method. The synthesis method is
cost-effective and easy to scale up. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of willemite
nanoparticles in the biomedical field. The antibacterial rate increased from 65% to 99% while
the cell viability decreased from 98% to 70 % when the willemite nanoparticles concentration varied
from 0.05 to 190 ppm. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity studies show that the willemite has lower cytotoxicity.
Hence, it is revealed that willemite nano crystals are potentially applicable as bone substitution
materials in tissue engineering.
Conclusion: Willemite nanoparticles possess effective in vitro noncytotoxicity and antibacterial
activity. The favourable properties with excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial ability can be
achieved when willemite concentration is between 0.30 ppm and 2.3 ppm. The antibacterial willemite
is non-toxic to the living cells and tissues even if the particles are internalized by cells. Willemite
is an excellent candidate in the biomedical field. Novel willemite nano crystals may provide
new opportunities for a non-cytotoxic implant with antibacterial ability in bone tissue engineering.