Malassezia spp. are lipophilic yeasts not only present in the normal skin microflora,
but also responsible of skin-related diseases (pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic/atopic
dermatitis and dandruff) as well as systemic fungal infections in humans and animals. Their
treatment and eradication are mainly based on old azole drugs, which are characterized by
poor compliance, unpredictable clinical efficacy, emerging resistance and several side effects.
These drawbacks have prompted the research toward novel synthetic and natural derivatives/
nanomaterials targeting other pivotal enzymes/pathways such as carbonic anhydrase
(MgCA) and lipases, alone or in combination, in order to improve the eradication rate
of this fungus. This review accomplished an update on this important topic dealing with the
latest discoveries of synthetic scaffolds and natural products for the treatment of
Malasseziaspp.-related diseases, thus suggesting new opportunities to design innovative
and alternative anti-dandruff drugs.
Keywords: Azoles, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, dandruff, lipase inhibitors, Malassezia spp., natural inhibitors.
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