Background: Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various
neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve
damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields,
and nanoparticles have been applied in the neurological field for tracking and treating nervous system
diseases. Combining stem cells with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has
demonstrated that the combination has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple
central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improves prognosis.
Objective: The aim of this review was to give a brief overview of the application of nanomaterials in
stem cell therapy for neurological diseases.
Results: Nanoparticles not only promote stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro or in vivo,
but also play dominant roles on stem cell imaging and tracking. Furthermore, via delivering genes or
drugs, nanoparticles can participate in stem cell therapeutic applications for various neurological diseases,
such as ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease
(PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gliomas. However, nanoparticles have potential cytotoxic effects
on nerve cells, which are related to their physicochemical properties.
Conclusion: Nano-stem cell-based therapy as a promising strategy has the ability to affect neuronal
repair and regeneration in the central nervous system.