Background: The determination of NSAIDs (ketoprofen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) in urine
samples provides useful information for assessing their safety, therapeutic effect, and their mechanism
of action. Urine samples are characterized by their complexity and low concentration of the target analytes,
which make their direct analysis difficult. In this work, the potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes
(MWCNTs) as Solid Bar Microextraction (SBME) adsorbents for extraction and preconcentration
of selected drugs from urine samples have been investigated.
Methods: Five SBME devices (contains 10 mg of MWCNTs) were placed in 30 mL of adjusted pH 2
water samples and stirred for 40 minutes. After finishing the extraction, the devices were ultrasonicated
in 250 µL of methanol for 5 min to desorb the selected drugs and analyzed using HPLC-DAD.
Results: The analytical performance of the whole method was evaluated in water samples. Limits of
detection and quantitation were in the ranges of (0.36- 0.52) and (1.2- 1.7) µg L-1, respectively, and the
Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) < 5.7% over a concentration range of 5-100 µg L-1.
Application: The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of selected drugs in spiked
human urine samples. The absolute recovery obtained by spiking the urine samples at three concentration
levels: 5, 50 and 100 µg L-1 of selected NSAIDs were from 48.8% to 53.5%.
Conclusion: The proposed SBME using MWCNT as a sorbent material can be a useful alternative sample
preparation technique for the routine determination of NSAIDs in urine samples at therapeutic
levels with very simple sample pretreatment. Furthermore, the application of the developed SBME
method might be extended to study the determination of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
in veterinary urine samples.