Background: Various clinical studies have revealed that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are
associated with bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis and periodontitis, especially in older population.
As one of the best-established risk factors of CVD, hyperlipidemia is also reported to interfere
with the metabolism, function and regeneration of mineralized tissues. Derived from postnatal tissue
reservoirs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising cell sources for mesenchymal
and non-mesenchymal tissue regeneration based on their capacities for self-renewal and multi-lineage
differentiation as well as potent immunosuppressive effects, secretion of cytokines and regulation of vascularization.
MSCs could home to the injury sites from peripheral circulation, proliferate and differentiate
into bone-forming cells, therefore significantly enhancing bone regeneration. However, elevated blood
lipid levels affect the physiological behaviors of MSCs, as well as the performance of transplanted MSCs.
Objective: This review aims to summarize the effects of hyperlipidemia and CVD on the proliferation,
osteogenic differentiation and homing of MSCs. The principal observations of the underlying cellular
and molecular mechanisms as well as the effects of lipid-lowering therapy on MSCs are also discussed.