Background: Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb, is used by local community to cure a number
of diseases such as inflammation, jaundice bronchial asthma, cancer and diabetes.
Objectives: The aim of present work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential, in vitro antidiabetic and
antimicrobial effects of A. bracteosa.
Methods: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ajuga bracteosa
roots, were prepared via maceration. Antibacterial activity was carried out by agar well diffusion
method. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening was done. The antioxidant activity was
determined by iron (II) chelating activity, iron reducing power, DPPH, and ABTS free radical scavenging
methods, Antidiabetic activity was evaluated through inhibition of α-glucosidase assay.
Results: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines,
terpenoids, xanthoproteins, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, phytosterols and amino acids.
DPPH and ABTS potential values were recorded as 61.92% to 88.84% and 0.11% to 38.82%, respectively.
Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were expressed as gallic acid and rutin equivalents.
Total iron content was expressed as FeSO4 equivalents. Chloroform and n-hexane extracts showed significant
enzyme inhibition potential with IC50 values of 29.92 μg/ml and 131.7 μg/ml respectively.
Aqueous extract showed maximum inhibition of E. coli, S. typhimurium, E. amnigenus, S. pyogenes,
and S. aureus, (18.0±1.0 mm, 12.5±0.7 mm, 17.0±0.0 mm, 11.0±0.0 mm and 15.3±2.0 mm mm),
respectively. Similarly, n-hexane extract showed maximum inhibition of E. coli, E. amnigenus, S.
aureus (11.6±1.5 mm; 11.3±1.5 mm; 13.3±0.5 mm). This study also shows that n-hexane, chloroform,
ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of A. bracteosa root possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and
therefore it may be used as hypoglycemic agents in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia.
Conclusion: Ajuga bracteosa root extracts may provide a basis for development of antioxidant, antimicrobial
and antidiabetic drugs.