Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is a well-known regulatory mechanism in biological
systems and has become one of the significant means of protein function regulation, modulating
most of the biological processes. Protein kinases play vital role in numerous cellular processes.
Kinases transduce external signal into responses such as growth, immunity and stress tolerance
through phosphorylation of their target proteins. In order to understand these cellular processes at the
molecular level, one needs to be aware of the different substrates targeted by protein kinases. Advancement
in tools and techniques has bestowed practice of multiple approaches that enable target
identification of kinases. However, so far none of the methodologies has been proved to be as good as
a panacea for the substrate identification. In this review, the recent advances that have been made in
the identifications of putative substrates and the implications of these kinases and their substrates in
stress management are discussed.
Keywords: Kinase, Post-translational modification, Phosphorylation, Signal transduction, Substrate identification, Stress management.
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