Background: Urolithiasis (UL) is the process of formation of calculi in the urinary
system that includes, ureterolithiasis, urethrolithiasis and cystolithiasis, and is prevalent
in the developing and underdeveloped countries. Nevertheless, exact natural drugs are not
available to control the nucleation and aggregation of various renal calculi.
Objective: To screen the plant species (Holarrhena antidysenterica, Alternanthera sessilis,
Solanum nigrum and Centella asiatica) and identify the polyphenolic fraction that controls
the formation of renal calculi.
Methods: Different extraction methodologies were attempted to prepare the crude extracts.
Spectroscopic analysis was performed to determine the nucleation and aggregation of renal
calculus. TLC, PTLC and LC-MS-PDA analyses were executed to identify the polyphenols
in the eluates.
Results: An appreciable inhibition of nucleation (Nu) and aggregation (Agg) of calcium oxalate
(CaOx) (Nu- 96.9±1.3%; Agg- 98.7±2.8%), struvite (Nu- 96.3±2.1%; Agg- 97.8±1.1%)
and calcium phosphate (CaP) (Nu- 97.6±3.0%; Agg- 97.4±1.6%) crystals were recorded by
the pressurized hot water bark extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica more than the other extracts.
The studies proved significant nucleation inhibition of all types of crystals by the
chromatography (planar and column) eluates of the plant species. A substantial dissolution
of CaOx and CaP kidney stones was observed in the PAEs, and the chromatography eluates
of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Solanum nigrum. The LC-MS-PDA analysis of Solanum
nigrum revealed the presence of few novel polyphenols such as carboxylated caffeic acid
phenethylester and flavonoid pentoside.
Conclusion: The present investigation concludes the significant antiurolithic activity of purified
polyphenols present in the Holarrhena antidysenterica and Solanum nigrum.