Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the only unique microorganism that has been linked to cancer.
Although many therapeutic lines have been modified we are still lacking with the successful formulation
to treat and manage the infection. Later, probiotics have been introduced as an alternative increasing
the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Probiotics include several microorganisms, mostly Lactobacillus
which can be listed as termination of living microorganisms, which, upon ingestion in certain numbers,
exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. To our knowledge, various mechanisms including
strengthening gut barrier function, antimicrobial substances, competing for adhesion sites and
inducing specific immune responses are which probiotics can serve as antimicrobial agents. Of course,
there are some unknown mechanisms of action which should be discovered in close future. Many clinical
trials reported that administration of probiotics can reduce the side effects of H. pylori eradication
treatment, also increase tolerability, and even increases the efficacy. Taking together, we can assume that
the probiotics cannot stand as an alternative to the current antibiotics to eliminate the H. pylori infection.
The likely role of probiotics in optimistic view can be an adjuvant in therapeutic regimens against
H. pylori. In conclusion, the use of probiotics appears promising only as an adjuvant for the current H.
pylori eradication treatment, though it still requires optimization.