The artificial nanostructures such as nanoparticles and natural nanostructures such as secreted nanosized
extracellular vesicles known as exosomes are promising tools for the realization of personalized medicine.
Radionanomedicine is a recently coined term for the simultaneous application of either radiation technology or
nuclear medicine with nanomedicine. In addition, radioexosomics is our suggested term for the study of
exosomes functions, cytotoxicity, cancerogenicity, and biodistribution using radiation technology and nuclear
medicine tracing technology. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and a big
majority of patients with PC progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) mostly. The mechanisms
leading to development of CRPC remain poorly understood and there is still a need to improve the therapeutic
options available for PCa. In this review, a wide variety of nanostructure-based prostate cancer research using
radiation technology and nuclear medicine is discussed. In addition, we will present what is currently known
about the function of exosomes in PCa. The review concludes by summarizing the current status and future perspectives
of radionanomedicine and radioexosomics for understanding PCa biology, as well as PCa enhancement
of targeting strategies, drug delivery, molecular imaging and therapy.
Keywords: Prostate, cancer, radiation, nuclear medicine, nanomedicine, exosome.
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