Animal models have been the main resources for drug discovery and prediction of drugs’ pharmacokinetic
responses in the body. However, noticeable drawbacks associated with animal models include high cost, low
reproducibility, low physiological similarity to humans, and ethical problems. Engineered tissue models have
recently emerged as an alternative or substitute for animal models in drug discovery and testing and disease modeling.
In this review, we focus on skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle tissues by first describing their characterization
and physiology. Major fabrication technologies (i.e., electrospinning, bioprinting, dielectrophoresis, textile
technology, and microfluidics) to make functional muscle tissues are then described. Finally, currently used muscle
tissue models in drug screening are reviewed and discussed.
Keywords: Cardiac muscle, Skeletal muscle, drug screening, Engineering muscle, Human pharmacological response, physiological similarity.
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