Background: In recent years, tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) are
rapidly evolving fields. TE and RM are part of the biomedical field, and both are emergent research
areas with a high impact on medical issues. The development of new types of novel, effective and
highly reliable engineering constructs is essential to tackle many human health-related diseases. To this
end, materials science technology offers an excellent engineering exploitability.
Objective: The objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge in the field of biomaterials
for TE and RM including human-made novel constructs though using different materials and strategies.
Methods: We extensively reviewed, analyzed and compiled salient information from the authentic published
literature available in PubMed and other scientific databases.
Results: The multi-shape novel constructs have been fabricated for a variety of applications in bio and
non-bio sectors of the modern world. As compared to the natural bulk material, engineering of their
constructs particularly at the micro and nano-level impart unique characteristics including surface area
and surface functionality enhancement, improved thermo-mechanical and electrical conductivity, etc.
The materials-based engineered constructs have been exploited in biotechnology at large and biomedical
Conclusion: The most promising applications include their utilization as a vehicle to deliver therapeutic
agents, as scaffolds for engineering various tissues and also serve as an integrated part of biomedical
implants, etc. Herein, we reviewed bio-nano-technological advancements from a TE and RM perspective
in particular and envision directions of future developments.