Substance and Non Substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Substance and Non Substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Indexed in: EBSCO.

Substance and Non substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment is an accessible handbook about the two main types of addiction disorders. It is divided into three sections which ...
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Ecstasy Substance Use Disorder

Pp. 121-127 (7)

Subhash C. Bhatia and Aly Hassan


Ecstasy or 3, 4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine also called a club drug because of its use in “rave” parties has both stimulant and psychedelic effects. Stimulant effect which precedes psychedelic effect causes euphoria. In addition through release of oxytocin prosocial and empathic behavior as well as sense of intimacy is experienced. The psychedelic effect causes distortion of sensory perceptions. This drug is popular with adolescents and young adults and often associated with prolonged weekend “rave” parties. Its use causes depletion of serotonin which may cause depression and suicidal behavior. Depression may also be caused by “crash” from stimulant effect. With intoxication of ecstasy patient often experiences autonomic effects like elevated blood pressure, elevated temperature, cardiac arrhythmia, and panic attacks. In addition patient may experience headaches, vertigo, seizure and loss of consciousness. For intoxication treatment is supportive and symptomatic. There are no specific medications for its treatment. Psychosocial interventions like cognitive behavioral therapy, social and coping skills training and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorder are very valuable options.


Club drug, Ecstasy, MDMA, Oxytocin release, Pro social and pro empathy drug, Rave parties.


Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, Creighton University; Department VA Nebraska- Western Iowa Health Care System 4101 Woolworth Ave Omaha, NE 68105, USA