Substance and Non Substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Substance and Non Substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment

Indexed in: EBSCO.

Substance and Non substance Related Addiction Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment is an accessible handbook about the two main types of addiction disorders. It is divided into three sections which ...
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Neurobiology and Psycho-Social Basis for Addiction and Related Disorders

Pp. 3-9 (7)

Subhash C. Bhatia


Addictive disorders are diseases of the brain. Addictions like chronic illness may have remissions and relapses. These are caused by genetic, biological, psychological, social and economic factors. Reward pathways for all substance and non-substance related addictive behavior (gambling, sex and food addiction etc.) are similar and are mediated through nucleus accumbens and associated circuits. Negative preexisting emotional state or due to withdrawal from substance and self-medication to seek relief may perpetuate addictive behavior. Substance or non-substance related addictive behavior-pleasure-reinforcement-reuse paradigm perpetuates addictive behavior. Environmental cues and memories associated with addiction related activities contribute to craving and relapse. Dopamine neurotransmitter plays major role in addictive behaviors. Treatment consideration should factor in all of these biopsychosocial factors.


Addiction reward pathways, Cues and craving, Dopamine, Nucleus accumbens, Operant conditioning, Self-medication theory.


Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, Creighton University; Department VA Nebraska- Western Iowa Health Care System 4101 Woolworth Ave Omaha, NE 68105, USA.