Tuberculosis is a leading killer, especially for people living with HIV. It is a real
medical need to tackle this disease, which is made difficult to treat due to the increasing
spread of multi-drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant bacterial strains. Cases of tuberculosis
that are resistant to virtually all drugs currently available are increasing at an alarming
rate around the world. Here, we review the current knowledge in the field of drug development
against tuberculosis with a focus on the mechanisms of action of drugs and the targeted
bacterial cell processes involved. Particular emphasis is dedicated to the process of cell wall
synthesis, which has proven to provide strong potentialities for drug development. It is hoped
that a deeper understanding of key molecular machineries to tackle will provide us with a better
outline of possible antibacterial mechanisms of action and offer hints for the design of
more efficient strategies to treat resistant tuberculosis in the future.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, drug, protein structure, TB drug development, cell wall, antibacterial.
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