Objective: The dramatic increase in the population with dementia expected in the next
decades is accompanied by the establishment of novel and innovated methods that will offer accurate
and efficient detection of the disease in its early stages. While Alzheimer's disease is the most common
cause of dementia, by the time it is typically diagnosed, substantial neuronal loss and neuropathological
lesions can damage many brain regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the main risk factors that
affect and increase Alzheimer's disease progression over time even in cases with no significant memory
impairment present. Several potential markers are discussed such as oxidative stress, metal ions,
vascular disorders, protein dysfunctions and alterations in the mitochondrial populations.
Conclusion: A multiparametric model of Alzheimer's biomarkers is presented according to the latest
classification of the disease.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, oxidative stress, metal ions, vascular disorders, protein dysfunctions,
mitochondrial dynamics, mild cognitive impairment.
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