Pathophysiology of Diabetic Dyslipidaemia (E-pub Ahead of Print)
Patients with diabetes usually exhibit diabetic dyslipidaemia. The aim of the review is to present the quantitative and qualitative alterations of lipids and lipoproteins and the associated mechanisms in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. The main quantitative changes observed in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia are increased triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Qualitative abnormalities mainly include increased small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (despite similar serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as non-diabetic subjects) and alterations in the apolipoprotein content of HDL particles. Alterations in the activities of enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein and the lipoprotein content of lipid particles along with their glycation and oxidation play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic dyslipidaemia. Diabetic dyslipidaemia is associated with quantitative and qualitative alterations of lipids and lipoproteins, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: Diabetes, dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein.
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