Sex Differences in Type-2 Diabetes: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk Management

Author(s): Valeria Raparelli , Susanna Morano , Flavia Franconi , Andrea Lenzi , Stefania Basili* .

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 10 , 2017

Abstract:

Background: Among individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Sex and gender differences (SGDs) in the cardiovascular consequences of T2DM are relevant suggesting the need for a more aggressive CVD preventive strategy in diabetic women as they lose the so-called "female advantage" in terms of CVD risk comparing with the nondiabetic population. Multiple factors may explain the disproportion in CVD risk among women with diabetes comparing with diabetic men or non-diabetic women. Both genetic and hormonal factors only partially explain SGDs in CVD risk in diabetes. However, women likely reach diagnosis later and in worse conditions, they undergo both diagnostic and therapeutic supports in lower percentage and, finally, they are not able to obtain therapeutic goals recommended by guidelines. Concerning the cardiovascular system, diabetes amplifies the extent of damage at both micro- and macrovascular level differently among sexes.

Methods: The aim of this review is to clarify, in a sex and gender perspective, the impact of diabetes in CVD risk and to summarize the most important SGDs in CVD primary and secondary prevention strategies such as antiplatelet drugs and statins.

Results: The efficacy of ASA and/or statins in secondary prevention is documented in both sexes independently by the presence of T2DM. A different approach to CVD primary prevention with ASA using the age cut-off to discriminate sex differences has been recommended. The use of statins for primary prevention in women should be accurately monitored for the occurrence of myalgia and risk of developing diabetes.

Conclusion: A gender approach in CVD prevention strategies is urgently required to achieve a sensible reduction of adverse CV events.

Keywords: Diabetes, antiplatelet therapy, statins, sex, gender, cardiovascular disease, and prevention.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 10
Year: 2017
Page: [1471 - 1476]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170130153704
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 31
HTML: 4