The beneficial effects of chronic exercise training on lipoprotein metabolism include a considerable
increase in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and a reduction in serum triglyceride levels.
These changes are mostly reported in athletes participating in dynamic sports, especially in the endurance
ones. Diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidaemias in athletes should follow the main principles of management
of dyslipidaemias for the general population, while specific considerations for athletes should be
taken into account. Dyslipidaemias in athletes are usually characterized by a significant genetic predisposition.
Clinicians who evaluate the lipoprotein profile of athletes should keep in mind the possibility of an
illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs, which can influence lipoprotein metabolism. Lifestyle intervention
should be the cornerstone of treatment of dyslipidaemias in athletes, but it should be tailored to
the needs of individual athletic activity. Hypolipidaemic medications may not be well-tolerated by competitive
athletes and should be reserved only for athletes with inadequate response to lifestyle measures.
The treatment of dyslipidaemias in athletes should aim at reducing cardiovascular risk without compromising
Keywords: Sports, dyslipidaemia, athletes, lipoproteins, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides.
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