Pharmacogenetics and Metabolism from Science to Implementation in Clinical Practice: The Example of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

Author(s): Marzia Del Re* , Giuliana Restante , Antonello Di Paolo , Stefania Crucitta , Eleonora Rofi , Romano Danesi .

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 14 , 2017

Abstract:

Background: Fluoropyrimidines are widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and remain the backbone of many combination chemotherapy regimens. Despite their clinical benefit, they are associated with frequent gastrointestinal and hematological toxicities, which often lead to treatment discontinuation. Fluoropyrimidines undergo complex anabolic and catabolic biotransformation. Enzymes involved in this pathway include dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which breaks down 5-FU and its prodrugs. Candidate gene approaches have demonstrated associations between 5-FU treatment outcomes and germline polymorphisms in DPD. The aim of this review is to report and discuss the latest results on fluoropyrimidine pharmacogenetics.

Methods: Literature from PubMed databases and bibliography from retrieved publications have been analyzed according to terms such DPD, DPYD, fluoropyrimdines, polymorphisms, toxicity, pharmacogenetics.

Results: To date, many sequence variations have been identified within DPYD gene, although the majority of these have no functional consequences on enzymatic activity. Nowadays, there is a general agreement on the clinical significance of the importance of DPD deficiency in patients who suffer from severe, life-threatening drug toxicity although preemptive testing is not applied to all patients.

Conclusion: Considering the published literature, clinicians are strongly encouraged to consider testing for DPD poor metabolizer variants as a rational pre-treatment screening for patients candidate to a fluoropyrimidine-based regimens, in order to prevent toxicities and personalise treatments.

Keywords: Fluoropyrimidines, DPD, mutations, toxicity.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 14
Year: 2017
Page: [2028 - 2034]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170125155530
Price: $58

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