Tonic and Rhythmic Spinal Activity Underlying Locomotion

Author(s): Yury P. Ivanenko*, Victor S. Gurfinkel, Victor A. Selionov, Irina A. Solopova, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Pierre A. Guertin, Francesco Lacquaniti.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 12 , 2017

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Abstract:

In recent years, many researches put significant efforts into understanding and assessing the functional state of the spinal locomotor circuits in humans. Various techniques have been developed to stimulate the spinal cord circuitries, which may include both diffuse and quite specific tuning effects. Overall, the findings indicate that tonic and rhythmic spinal activity control are not separate phenomena but are closely integrated to properly initiate and sustain stepping. The spinal cord does not simply transmit information to and from the brain. Its physiologic state determines reflex, postural and locomotor control and, therefore, may affect the recovery of the locomotor function in individuals with spinal cord and brain injuries. This review summarizes studies that examine the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical and lumbosacral neuronal circuitries in humans and its importance in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies.

Keywords: Central pattern generator, spinal cord, rhythmogenesis, muscle tone, neuromodulators, sensory input, Kohnstamm phenomenon, electromagnetic stimulation, locomotion.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 12
Year: 2017
Page: [1753 - 1763]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170125152246
Price: $58

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