Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential biochemical, cardio-metabolic risk marker. The production
of NO is catalyzed by different isoforms of enzymes, NO synthases (NOS). An altered NO level is associated
with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Activity of NOS and NO production
are regulated by various hormones under physiological and pathophysiological condition.
Methods: Data used for this review were obtained by searching the electronic database [PUBMED/MEDLINE
1984 - May 2016]. Additionally, abstracts from national and international diabetes and cardiovascular related
meetings were searched. The main data search terms were: nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, cardio-metabolic
risk, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, estradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1.
Results: In this review, we summarize the recent literature data related to the regulation of endothelial NOS
(eNOS), inducible (iNOS) activity/expression, and thereby NO production by the hormones: estradiol (E2), and
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
Conclusion: Understanding the regulation of NO production by different hormones such as E2, and IGF-1 may
provide novel and useful knowledge regarding how endothelial dysfunction (ED) is linked with cardio-metabolic
alterations and diseases.