Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a result of macrovascular changes is the
leading cause of mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). While CVD complications are seen
predominantly in adulthood, the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and is accelerated in patients
with T1DM. This review focuses on the epidemiology of traditional CVD risk factors in adolescents
with T1DM, its association with markers of CVD and an overview of studies looking into each
individual risk factor.
Conclusion: The risk factors that are reviewed here are hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity,
lack of exercise, hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy. We highlight the importance of early identification,
and interventions, which include optimizing glycemic control, pharmacotherapy, regular
physical activity and dietary changes.