Background: In recent times, miRNA has been able to catch the significant attention of scientists
worldwide. This small part of non-coding RNA has finally been recognized for its enormous potential
for cleavage, m-RNA degradation, and translational modifications. Moreover, miRNA has now been included
in the list of quite important class of blood based biomarkers, which shows their specific signatures
as circulating microRNA in various diseases like cancer, hypertrophy, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s disease,
etc. Keeping in view of the enormous potential of miRNA, computational bioinformatics approaches have
now been explored in detail, which has resulted not only in a large number of databases of the same, but
also in the programs delivering information about their structural and functional relevance, using OMICS
Objective: This review has an aim of discussing the significant details of microRNA, their function
as targets for various diseases like cancer, related databases and associated biological applications.
Method: An extensive literature survey was performed on miRNAs, its relevant databases, which are
used for the search of their structure and function, miRNA biogenesis pathway and a range of miRNAs
involved in various diseases, in particular cancer.
Results: Using OMICS approaches and innovative techniques, the structural and biological roles of
miRNA in relation to various diseases has now been established. Role of miRNAs as biomarkers, its
applications in various cellular processes, its function as a target of certain diseases are now some of
the quite common patterns of studies.
Conclusion: With an update on relevant aspects, the regulatory and functional roles of miRNA
would be elucidated for providing future insights into the unmapped cellular mechanisms of life
processes, which may further facilitate our understanding about various challenging diseases.