Background: Heavy metal pollution in the environmental samples like soil, water and runoff water
is a worldwide problem. Such contamination of environmental matrices by the heavy metals accumulates
due to various activities involving human driven sources and industries, although agriculture and sewage
disposal are the largest source for the heavy metal contamination. Disposal of heavy metals or waste products
containing heavy metals in the environment postures a trivial threat to public safety and health. Heavy
metals are persistence and they can also cause biomagnifications and accumulate in food chain.
Method: Microbial bioremediation of heavy metal is emerging as an effective technique. Microbial bioremediation
is a highly efficient environmental friendly procedure which also reduces the cost of cleanup
process associated with heavy metal contamination. New methods for removal of heavy metals from
the environmental samples are under development and most recent advancements have been made in
exploring the knowledge of metal-microbes interactions and its use for heavy metal remediation.
Conclusion: This review paper will focus on the microbial bioremediation process and highlight some
of the newly developed patented methods for microbial bioremediation of the heavy metals from the
environmental samples using microbial populations.
Keywords: Detoxification, environmental matrices, heavy metal contamination, industrial waste, microbial
bioremediation, microbial population.
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