Principles and Developments of Solid-Phase Microextraction
Pp. 167-218 (52)
Adam Kloskowski, Łukasz Marcinkowski, Francisco Pena-Pereira and Jacek Namieśnik
Sample preparation has been commonly considered a critical step of the
analytical process. In this sense, remarkable efforts have been made to develop efficient
sample preparation techniques which could overcome the limitations of conventional
approaches. Since its inception in the early 1990’s, solid-phase microextraction
(SPME) has become a widespread miniaturized sample preparation technique for
extraction and preconcentration of target analytes from a large variety of matrices.
Interestingly, sampling, extraction, enrichment and sample introduction can be
integrated into a single step in SPME. This book chapter focuses on the basic principles
and current state of the art of SPME. Specifically, both thermodynamic and kinetic
aspects of the SPME technique are discussed in detail. In addition, those experimental
variables that show a paramount role in the extraction process, and should therefore be
optimized and controlled for optimal performance, are considered. Valuable
contributions that enabled the development of this solventless technique and current
challenges are identified. Other related SPME devices, such as internally cooled SPME,
in-tube SPME and membrane SPME, are also described.
Automation, Direct immersion, Divinylbenzene, Fiber coatings, Gas
chromatography, Headspace, High-performance liquid chromatography, In-tube
SPME, Internally cooled SPME, Kinetics, Membrane-SPME, Molecularly imprinted
polymers, Poly(dimethylsiloxane), Polymeric ionic liquids, Preconcentration,
Sample preparation, Sample preparation, Sol-gel sorbents, Solid-phase microextraction,
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, Narutowicza Str.11/12, Gdansk 80-233, Poland.