Stromal vascular fraction of the adipose tissue is recognized as reservoir of
the cell populations with stem and progenitor properties. Besides the roles of adipose tissue
stem and progenitor cells (ASPCs) in adipose tissue development and homeostasis,
particularly interest is given to their functions in adipose tissue expansion and obesity.
Obesity-driven low-grade chronic inflammation, reduction of oxygen level in adipose
tissue and engagement of bone marrow, support recruitment of various progenitor cells
in adipose tissue. Activation of bone marrow-adipose tissue axis regulates hematopoiesis
and infiltration of immune cells in adipose tissue. Obesity-associated factors can provoke
alteration of ASPC multipotent differentiation and immunosuppressive potential.
Determination of underpinning mechanisms in altered (obese) ASPC phenotype may
contribute to development of novel approaches for treatment of metabolic disorders and
advancement the safety and efficiency of adipose tissue grafting.
Keywords: Adipose tissue, bone marrow, graft, inflammation, obesity, stem cells.
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