Gliomas are central nervous system tumors originated from glial cells, whose incidence
and mortality is expected to rise in coming years, especially in developing countries. Diagnosis and
classification of gliomas have largely relied on tumor histopathologic features that provide limited information
regarding response to therapy or prognosis. Current treatment of gliomas is surgery combined
with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, many tumors show a high resistance to these
interventions, and recurrences are frequent since conventional therapies do not take into account the
unique molecular features of different subtypes of glioma. Molecular genetics provide new insights in
classifying gliomas and predicting response to therapy that can range from conventional treatments to
new revolutionary therapeutic approaches. This article offers a review of the intracellular signaling
pathways involved in carcinogenesis of gliomas, as well as a description of new tools for their diagnosis,
prognosis, and treatment with a target-oriented approach.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Genotype, Glioma, Gliomagenesis, Phenotype, Prognosis, Signaling Pathways, Treatment.
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