Year-by-year, the amount of antibiotics for human and veterinary use increases. Their presence in
both treated and untreated wastewater was highlighted in several studies, suggesting that traditional activated
sludge processes are unsuitable for their efficient removal. In this review paper, we summarized the role of advanced
oxidation processes (AOPs) in antibiotics removal evidencing their pros, cons and limitations. In most
cases, they are still applied at laboratory or pilot scale, with just few examples of full-scale applications. Main
constraints are related to energy cost, catalyst management and potential residual toxicity in treated effluents.
The main advantages are related to the full mineralization of target compounds or the ability to increase their
relative biodegradability. Future challenges include nano-based green synthetized catalysts maximizing the use
of solar radiation for energy saving. Generally, AOPs application is part of a more structured wastewater treatment
process including operating units at various technological contents.