Background: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by progressive bone loss due to aging
and menopause in women leading to bone fragility with increased susceptibility towards fractures. The
silent disease weakens the bone by altering its microstructure and mass. Therapy is based on either
promoting strength (via osteoblast action) or preventing disease (via osteoclast action). Current therapy
with different drugs belonging to antiresorptive, anabolic and hormonal classification suffers from poor
pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile.
Objectives: Nanoparticles provide breakthrough as an alternative therapeutic carrier and biomedical
imaging tool in bone diseases. The current review highlights bone physiology and pathology along
with potential applications of nanoparticles in osteoporosis through use of organic and inorganic particles
for drug delivery, biomedical imaging as well as bone tissue regeneration therapy.
Results: Inorganic nanoparticles of gold, cerium, platinum and silica have effects on osteoblastic and
osteoclastic lineage. Labelling and tracking of bone cells by quantum dots and gold nanoparticles are
advanced and non-invasive techniques. Incorporation of nanoparticles into the scaffolds is a more recent
technique for improving mechanical strength as well as regeneration during bone grafting.
Conclusions: Promising results by in vitro and in vivo studies depicts effects of nanoparticles on biochemical
markers and biomechanical parameters during osteoporosis suggesting the bright future of
nanoparticles in bone applications. Any therapy which improves the drug profile and delivery to bone
tissue will be promising approach. Superparamagnetic, gold, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and
quantum dots provide golden opportunities for biomedical imaging by replacing the traditional invasive