Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, rapidly progressive and potentially lethal
disease almost exclusively affecting immunocompromised hosts or patients with metabolic disorders,
such as poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Methods: This work is aimed to describe five cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis to review and
possibly define diagnostic and surgical treatment guidelines. In all the patients, surgical debridement,
systemic and local antifungal therapy, and oral rehabilitation using filling prostheses were performed.
Results: None of the patients revealed recurrence of the infection, as confirmed by radiological and
clinical long term follow up.
Conclusion: Given the lethal nature of the disease, the authors underline the importance of early
diagnosis and of a multidisciplinary approach in order to undertake correct surgical and medical
treatments, while keeping the underlying disease under control.