Background: Osteoporosis is a common degenerative bone disease which is characterized
with decreased bone strength and increased risk of fracture. The abnormal bone metabolism homeostasis,
especially in osteoclastic function, takes a fundamental role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. In the past
decade, epigenetic regulation of bone homeostasis are widely investigated and considered as a vital
factor in the regulation of the differentiation and functions of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes.
The relationship between osteoporosis and epigenetic regulations has gradually become as an important
issue in the mechanism study of osteoporosis.
Objective: In this review, we summarize the recent progresses of epigenetic regulation mechanism in
bone development and remodeling, and emphasize the epigenetic features of osteoporosis and the potent
therapy application of epigenetic drugs for osteoporosis.
Conclusion: DNA methylation and histone modification regulated bone development and remodeling
via affecting both osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. And the abnormal epigenetic status is
relevant to bone disease such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Several inhibitors of DNMTs or
HDACs exhibit a potential application for osteoporosis, and the side effects of these drugs should also
be considered in the future applications.