Background: Cytokine dysregulation plays an important role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
(T2DM) and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) with a commonality in pathogenic mechanisms. CP is considered
the sixth complication of diabetes and may have an increased influence on systemic levels of cytokines
in individuals with T2DM.
Objective: This study investigated two pro-, and two presumed anti-inflammatory cytokines and their
ratios in the serum of healthy individuals, in chronic periodontitis with and without T2DM with, and
without CP and in CP alone aimed at evaluating the systemic inflammatory burden of a local oral infection.
Methods: Eighty participants were divided equally into four groups as healthy volunteers (H) and patients
having T2DM with, and without CP (T2DM+CP, and T2DM) and only CP (CP). Serum samples
were collected to measure glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and also Tumor
Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-4, -6 - 10 were assessed using commercially available
Results: The cytokines were detected in all groups. Significant differences were observed between
groups for all the clinical, biochemical parameters and cytokines. Cytokine levels and the ratios
showed significant correlations. The ratios of the cytokines differed significantly amongst groups,
were highest in T2DM+CP.
Conclusion: In this study, the cytokine ratios provided a qualitative profile along with the absolute
levels in T2DM with periodontitis, indicative of an intensified systemic inflammatory state.