Background: Practical challenges and translational issues have affected the
widespread implementation of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. There are
significant barriers to the translation of personalized medicine from research labs to practical
application in a healthcare setting.
Methods: The information in this review paper was collected via search engines and Pub-
Med using the following search entries “pharmacogenomics”, “personalized medicine”,
“translational issues”. Articles and papers published from 2010 onwards were included.
Results: The gathered data presented in this paper illustrate the main challenges and translational
issues in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.
Conclusion: Costs in the drug discovery process and the implementation of personalized
medical approaches are the main barriers to the translation of pharmacogenomics from
laboratory to clinic. The lack of a unified system as well as the requirement for expert
analysis of data is additional barriers.