Background: Understanding the complexities associated with the ischemic condition and
identifying therapeutic targets in ischemia is a continued challenge in stroke biology. Emerging
evidence reveals the potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the incident and outcome of
stroke, suggesting novel therapeutic options of targeting different molecules related to epigenetic
Objective: This review summarizes our current understanding of ischemic pathophysiology,
describes various in vivo and in vitro models of ischemia, and examines epigenetic modifications
associated with the ischemic condition.
Method: We focus on microRNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modifying enzymes, and present
how epigenetic studies are revealing novel drug target candidates in stroke.
Conclusion: Finally, we discuss emerging approaches for the prevention and treatment of stroke and
post-stroke effects using pharmacological interventions with a wide therapeutic window.