Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is currently considered the most common global cause of acute flaccid paralysis. Currently, standard therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome includes intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. Despite medical advances regarding these treatments many patients treated with them do not reach full recovery. Therefore, during last decades several biological agents have attracted the attentions from researchers and various studies have investigated their role in Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Objective: the present study aims to address emerging biological approaches to GBS, considering their efficiency and safety in the treatment of the disease.
Materials and methods: an extensive electronic literature search was conducted by two researchers from April 2016 to July 2016. Original articles, clinical trials, systematic reviews (with or without meta-analysis) and case reports were selected. Titles and abstracts of papers were screened by reviewers to determine whether they met the eligibility criteria and full texts of the remaining articles were retrieved.
Results: herein authors focused on the literature data concerning emerging biological therapeutic agents, namely anti-C5 monoclonal antibody (Eculizumab), anti-C1q monoclonal antibody, anti-T cell monoclonal antibody, anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, anti L-selectin monoclonal antibody, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab), anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (Alemtuzumab) and cytokine targets. By far, none of these agents have been approved for treatment of GBS by FDA.
Conclusions: Literature findings represented in current review herald promising results for using these biological targets. Current review represents a summary of what is already in regards and what progress is required to improve the immunotherapeutic approach of treating GBS via future studies.