Background: Synthesis, properties, structural peculiarities, and applications of nanobuds and
related nanostructures are discussed. In addition, few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and
cited. According to observed properties and those predicted by DFT calculations, the nanobuds are semiconducting
and stable in normal conditions, can accept adatoms and molecules. They contain a relatively
chemically inert carbon nanotubes and more active fullerene species and can be compatible with a variety
of other materials, in particular polymers. In addition to nanobuds for SWCNTs, the nanobuds with graphene,
small fullerenes or metal nanobud-like structures are also known.
Method: We have undertaken an extensive search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research
literature using a focused review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The characteristics
of screened papers were described and critically compared.
Results: Thirty-six papers were included in the review, mainly from high-impact international journals.
The published articles correspond to the range 2006-2016; the term “nanobuds” appeared in 2006 after
their discovery. The reports included approaches of the synthesis of carbon nanobuds, their formation
mechanism, in situ engineering, different modes of attachment of fullerene on carbon nanotubes, DFT
and MD calculations, nanobuds containing small fullerenes and graphene nanobuds, information about
related noble metal nanobuds, and applications of carbon nanobuds.
Conclusion: The findings of this review confirm the importance of novel less-common nanostructures on
the basis of carbon for fundamental science, their unusual properties and current and possible applications.