Intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance represents the main obstacle to the successful
treatment of cancer patients. Several mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance: decreased
uptake of hydrophilic drugs, increase of energy dependent efflux, alteration of the redox
state, alteration of apoptotic pathways, and modification of the tumor microenvironment.
In recent years, several types of nanoparticles have been developed to overcome these obstacles
and improve the accumulation and release of drugs at the pathological site. In this review,
we describe the main mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance and the nanovehicles
which have been proposed to target specific aspects of this phenomenon.
Keywords: Cancer, chemoresistance mechanisms, drug delivery, miRNA/siRNA delivery, nanoparticles, mitoxantrone,
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