Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses,
and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies
have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics
are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the
current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome
and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin
D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases. Moreover, we
will review the clinical application of probiotics in prevention and therapy of IBD or colon
cancer. Despite of the gains, there remain several barriers to advocate broad use of probiotics
in clinical therapy. We will also discuss the limits and future direction in scientific understanding
of probiotics, vitamin D/VDR, and host responses.
Keywords: Autophagy, bacteria, colon cancer, colitis, lactic acid bacteria, IBD, inflammation, probiotics, NF-κB,
vitamin D, VDR.
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