New Concepts in the Intra-Islet Control of β-Cell Function and Mass
Pp. 107-122 (16)
Brian T. Layden, Stephanie Villa and William L. Lowe
The regulation of pancreatic β-cell function and mass is critical to the
maintenance of euglycemia. β-cells integrate numerous signals from the host to secrete
appropriate amounts of insulin and maintain tight control of blood glucose levels.
Together with glucose; nutrients, amino acids, hormones, and metabolic by-products
contribute to this physiologic response. Within the islet microenvironment, where β-
cells reside, there exists a network of interacting pathways that contribute to insulin
secretion and regulation of β-cell mass. While factors within these pathways are often
sourced from digestive processes and peripheral tissues, intra-islet-derived factors are
also important components in the ability of -βcells to accurately integrate metabolic
demands with β-cell function. In recent years, many biologic factors have been found to
have previously unappreciated autocrine and paracrine roles within the islet. Moreover,
differences have been described between signaling within rodent and human islets that
are important for informing our understanding of autocrine/paracrine signaling between
species. In this review, we highlight these new findings and future directions for this
field of study.
Autocrine, β-cells, β-cell function, β-cell mass, Diabetes, Glucose,
Insulin, Islets, Nutrient-sensing, Paracrine.
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.