Various grafts or combination of bone substitute materials have been used in sinus lift procedures.
Currently, ongoing developments in several disciplines, from molecular biology and chemistry to
computer science and engineering, have contributed to the understanding of biological processes leading
to bone healing after the use of bone substitute materials (BSBs) and therefore of the behavior of
BSBs. The understanding of the properties of each graft enables individual treatment concepts and
therefore allows shift from a simple replacement material to the modern concept of an individually created
composite biomaterial. Indeed, the choice of the best BSB still remains crucial for success in maxillary
sinus augmentation procedures. The present article provides an overview of most of the materials
currently available for sinus lift, with a specific focus on their histological, molecular, cellular and
Keywords: Biocompatibility, bone substitute biomaterials, histology, membranes, newly formed bone, resorption.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport