Nanocarrier Systems with the Use of Physical Enhancers
Pp. 260-314 (55)
Roberto Diaz-Torres, Isabel Marlen Rodríguez-Cruz, Elizabeth García- García, Clara Luisa Domínguez-Delgado and Patricia Ramirez-Noguera
At present, nanotechnology has acquired great importance. One of the fields
where nanotechnology has been used with great success is medicine. This has allowed
the emergence of a branch of nanotechnology called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine has
been used by all known routes of administration (oral, intravenous, transdermal, etc.).
Topical/transdermal route is one of the most used routes to administer formulated drugs
in nanocarrier systems (nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimer, transfersomes,
nanoemulsion, etc.) in combination with the use of physical enhancers (microneedles,
iontophoresis, sonophoresis, etc.). This route has great potential to deliver drugs, but
the stratum corneum, which is the most external layer of the skin, confers properties of
permeability to this organ.
In order to modify the skin barrier properties and use the skin as a route to administer
drugs into the body, some interesting strategies have been developed in last decades,
such as the use of chemical and physical enhancers and even the combination of these
enhancers with nanocarrier systems. For this reason, this chapter mainly emphasizes
the applications of the 3 main physical enhancers (ultrasound, iontophoresis and
microneedles) with nanocarriers for administering drugs by topical/transdermal routes,
where they have been more widely used.
Nanocarriers, Physical enhancers, Transdermal drug delivery.
Unidad de Investigación Multidisciplinaria, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México, México.