Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that
mainly regulate genes responsible for fatty acid (FA) and energy metabolism. There are three members of the
PPAR family, PPAR-α, PPAR- β/δ and PPAR-γ. All three isoforms have therapeutic potential for treatment of
cardiovascular disorders, and PPAR agonists are currently being actively studied in pre-clinical and clinical trials.
PPAR γ agonists, main tissue expressing isoform, have potential to influence on inflammation processes, reduce
oxidative stress, improve endothelial function and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. PPAR-γ agonists
are used as insulin sensitizers for treatment of diabetes; however, there is accumulating evidence that their clinical
application can be broadened. The wide spectrum of PPAR-γ activation effects may be beneficial for treatment of
various cardiovascular conditions as atherosclerosis, hypertension and aortic aneurysm, including surgical
interventions. In this Review we will discuss the implication of PPAR-γ in the cardiovascular system and
potential role of PPAR-γ agonists in treatment of conditions associated with high cardiovascular risks.