Renal Physiology and Immune System: The Role of Renin-Angiotensin System, Nitric Oxide and Catecholamines
Pp. 232-249 (18)
Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Danielle Yuri Arita, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Juliana Dineia Perez Brandao, Lys Angela Favaroni Mendes Salgado Ribeiro, Danielle Sanches Aragao and Dulce Elena Casarini
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects both the innate and adaptive
immune responses. Since hyperactive RAS has been associated with several diseases,
the contribution of tissue RAS to the progression of immune and non-immune
conditions has been considered in the recent years. It has a well-established role in
fibrinogenesis, leukocyte infiltration, activity of T cells and has been shown to be
chemotactic to macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is
synthesized by many cell types involved in immunity and inflammation and plays an
important role in hypotension and regulates the functional activity, growth and death of
many immune and inflammatory cell types. Current evidences suggest that
catecholamines (CAs) play a key role in activating and limiting inflammatory and
immune reactions. In this chapter, we will discuss some aspects related to the role of
these molecules in inflammatory process and immunologically mediated conditions.
Catecholamines, HPA axis, Immune system, Nitric oxide, Renal
physiology, Renin-angiotensin system, Sympathetic nervous system.
Rua Botucatu, 740 – 2° andar, Department of Medicine/Nephrology Division, Vila Clementino – Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil, CEP 04023-900.