Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most common forms of cerebral hemorrhage,
the morbidity and death of ICH is high worldwide. ICH can be spontaneous or caused by hypertension,
coagulopathy, angiopathy, head trauma, bleeding disorders, tumors, or drug usage. ICH is the most serious and
least treatable form of hemorrhagic stroke, with rapidly increasing hematoma size and often resulting in significant
brain injury and long term neurological deficits. Surgical hematoma evacuation remains controversial. The
currently therapy is mainly supportive with limited benefit. New therapeutic approaches are desperately needed.
Methods: In this review, we provide an overview of the published literature concerning the pathophysiology
leading to the ongoing neurologic damage, Emerging information of the physio-pathologic mechanisms of injury
that occur after ICH is available from current animal models. Ideal therapeutic strategies should target on the
pathophysiology of ICH. This review summarizes the recent advances in developing pharmaceutical agents in
terms of therapeutic targets and effects in pre-clinical and clinical studies.
Results: Recent animal and clinical studies have provided important information about the parallel and sequential
deleterious mechanisms underlying ICH-induced brain injury and pharmacological agents targeting on these
Neuroscientists have paid more attention to novel drug development that target on antioxidants, antiinflammatory,
and anti-apoptosis for neuroprotection after ICH.
Conclusion: Although ICH remains without an approved treatment proven to decrease morbidity and mortality,
notable advances in the understanding of ICH pathophysiology and new drug development have been made in the