Background: The background of using the pour point depressant is that wax precipitation
causes several challenges during oil extraction and pipeline transport of waxy crude
oils, including wax deposition, plugging of the pipeline and damage to the oil drilling equipment,
which, collectively, adversely impacts pipeline performance.
Method: The method which used to solve the problem of paraffin deposit is adding chemical
additive. The objective of adding pour point depressant is to improve the fluidity of crude oil.
Addition of pour point depressants to the oil to improve the extract efficiency is an effective
way to prevent the generation of waxy crystalline clusters. In this article, four mechanisms of
the pour point depressants are introduced and the types of commonly used pour point depressants
are classified. The effect of different functional groups and structures of pour point depressants
on the wax crystal are summarized.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the factors that influence polymeric efficacy include the degree of
branching, molecular weight and carbon chain length. The prevention of the wax crystal formation
and improvement of the low-temperature fluidity of crude oils occurs by five reaction
mechanisms of the pour point depressant, including inserting, cutting off and by other means
changing the manner of wax crystal growth. The wax crystal structure and doughty polar
components of crude oil can adversely affect the pour point depressant action. Furthermore,
this article also describes future research directions for pour point depressants as a possible
guide for researchers.